"Don't think that I have come to abolish the Torah or the Prophets. I have come not to abolish but to complete."  Matthew 5:17

Kehilah Portland

 

A Messianic Jewish Synagogue

 
     
"For I will take you from among the nations, gather you from all the countries, and return you to your own soil. Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your uncleanness and from all your idols. I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit inside you; I will take the stony heart out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. I will put my Spirit inside you and cause you to live by my laws, respect my rulings and obey them. You will live in the land I gave to your ancestors. You will be my people, and I will be your God." Ezekiel 36:24 - 28
     

613 Mitzvot Listed by Category: Court and Judicial Procedures

The challenge for believers in Yeshua today is knowing what instructions apply. Many have been taught that Torah is no longer valid for believers. What many fail to realize is that the New Covenant writings don't contradict Torah but affirms it. Messiah Himself provides us with proper instruction in how we are to live. The basis of His teaching is Torah. Below is a key that will help to understand what instructions are valid today, what can't be done, what applies to the Jewish people only, whether in the land or not. There are some instructions that are open for debate.

Valid for Believers Today Can No Longer Be Followed Applies to Israel Specifically Applies to Israel - but can be followed by Gentiles Open for Debate

Given to Israel specifically to incorporate judicial structure for the nation, many of these instructions can be followed by believers today.

Number Type Description Commandment Scripture
227 Positive To appoint judges and officers in every community of Israel "You are to appoint judges and officers for all your gates \cf1\i [in the cities]\cf0\i0 Adonai your God is giving you, tribe by tribe; and they are to judge the people with righteous judgment. Deuteronomy 16:18
228 Negative Not to appoint as a judge, a person who is not well versed in the laws of the Torah, even if he is expert in other branches of knowledge You are not to show favoritism when judging, but give equal attention to the small and to the great. No matter how a person presents himself, don't be afraid of him; because the decision is God's. The case that is too hard for you, bring to me and I will hear it.' Deuteronomy 1:17
229 Positive To adjudicate cases of purchase and sale " 'If you sell anything to your neighbor or buy anything from him, neither of you is to exploit the other. Leviticus 25:14
230 Positive To judge cases of liability of a paid depositary In every case of dispute over ownership, whether of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, clothing, or any missing property, where one person says, 'This is mine,' both parties are to come before God; and the one whom God condemns must pay the other one double. Exodus 22:9
231 Positive To adjudicate cases of loss for which a gratuitous borrower is liable "If someone borrows something from his neighbor, and it gets injured or dies with the owner not present, he must make restitution. If the owner was present, he need not make good the loss. If the owner hired it out, the loss is covered by the hiring fee. Exodus 22:13 - 14
232 Positive To adjudicate cases of inheritances Moreover, say to the people of Isra'el, 'If a man dies and does not have a son, you are to have his inheritance pass to his daughter. If he doesn't have a daughter, give his inheritance to his brothers. If he has no brothers, give his inheritance to his father's brothers. If his father doesn't have brothers, give his inheritance to the closest relative in his family, and he will possess it. This will be the standard for judgment to be used by the people of Isra'el, as Adonai ordered Moshe.' " Numbers 27:8 - 11
233 Positive To judge cases of damage caused by an uncovered pit "If someone removes the cover from a cistern or digs one and fails to cover it, and an ox or donkey falls in, the owner of the cistern must make good the loss by compensating the animal's owner; but the dead animal will be his. Exodus 21:33 - 34
234 Positive To judge cases of injuries caused by beasts "If one person's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, they are to sell the live ox and divide the revenue from the sale; and they are also to divide the dead animal. But if it is known that the ox was in the habit of goring in the past, and the owner did not confine it; he must pay ox for ox, but the dead animal will be his. Exodus 21:35 - 36
235 Positive To adjudicate cases of damage caused by trespass of cattle "If a person causes a field or vineyard to be grazed over or lets his animal loose to graze in someone else's field, he is to make restitution from the best produce of his own field and vineyard. Exodus 22:4
236 Positive To adjudicate cases of damage caused by fire "If a fire is started and spreads to thorns, so that stacked grain, standing grain or a field is destroyed, the person who lit it must make restitution. Exodus 22:5
237 Positive To adjudicate cases of damage caused by a gratuitous depositary "If a person entrusts a neighbor with money or goods, and they are stolen from the trustee's house, then, if the thief is found, he must pay double. But if the thief is not found, then the trustee must state before God that he did not take the person's goods himself. Exodus 22:6 - 7
238 Positive To adjudicate other cases between a plaintiff and a defendant In every case of dispute over ownership, whether of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, clothing, or any missing property, where one person says, 'This is mine,' both parties are to come before God; and the one whom God condemns must pay the other one double. Exodus 22:8
239 Negative Not to curse a judge "You are not to curse God, and you are not to curse a leader of your people. Exodus 22:27
240 Positive That one who possesses evidence shall testify in Court " ' If a person who is a witness, sworn to testify, sins by refusing to tell what he has seen or heard about the matter, he must bear the consequences. Leviticus 5:1
241 Negative Not to testify falsely "Do not give false evidence against your neighbor. Exodus 20:13 (20:16)
242 Negative That a witness, who has testified in a capital case, shall not lay down the law in that particular case " 'If anyone kills someone, the murderer is to be put to death upon the testimony of witnesses; but the testimony of only one witness will not suffice to cause a person to be put to death. Numbers 35:30
243 Positive That a transgressor shall not testify "You are not to repeat false rumors; do not join hands with the wicked by offering perjured testimony. Exodus 23:1
244 Negative That the court shall not accept the testimony of a close relative of the defendant in matters of capital punishment "Fathers are not to be executed for the children, nor are children to be executed for the fathers; every person will be executed for his own sin. Deuteronomy 24:16
245 Negative Not to hear one of the parties to a suit in the absence of the other party "You are not to repeat false rumors; do not join hands with the wicked by offering perjured testimony. Exodus 23:1
246 Positive To examine witnesses thoroughly then you are to investigate the matter, inquiring and searching diligently. If the rumor is true, if it is confirmed that such detestable things are being done among you, Deuteronomy 13:15
247 Negative Not to decide a case on the evidence of a single witness "One witness alone will not be sufficient to convict a person of any offense or sin of any kind; the matter will be established only if there are two or three witnesses testifying against him. Deuteronomy 19:15
248 Positive To give the decision according to the majority, when there is a difference of opinion among the members of the Sanhedrin as to matters of law Do not follow the crowd when it does what is wrong; and don't allow the popular view to sway you into offering testimony for any cause if the effect will be to pervert justice. Exodus 23:2
249 Negative Not to decide, in capital cases, according to the view of the majority, when those who are for condemnation exceed by one only, those who are for acquittal Do not follow the crowd when it does what is wrong; and don't allow the popular view to sway you into offering testimony for any cause if the effect will be to pervert justice. Exodus 23:2
250 Negative That, in capital cases, one who had argued for acquittal, shall not later on argue for condemnation Do not follow the crowd when it does what is wrong; and don't allow the popular view to sway you into offering testimony for any cause if the effect will be to pervert justice. Exodus 23:2
251 Positive To treat parties in a litigation with equal impartiality " 'Do not be unjust in judging show neither partiality to the poor nor deference to the mighty, but with justice judge your neighbor. Leviticus 19:15
252 Negative Not to render iniquitous decisions " 'Do not be unjust in judging show neither partiality to the poor nor deference to the mighty, but with justice judge your neighbor. Leviticus 19:15
253 Negative Not to favor a great man when trying a case " 'Do not be unjust in judging show neither partiality to the poor nor deference to the mighty, but with justice judge your neighbor. Leviticus 19:15
254 Negative Not to take a bribe "You are not to repeat false rumors; do not join hands with the wicked by offering perjured testimony. Exodus 23:1
255 Negative Not to be afraid of a bad man, when trying a case You are not to show favoritism when judging, but give equal attention to the small and to the great. No matter how a person presents himself, don't be afraid of him; because the decision is God's. The case that is too hard for you, bring to me and I will hear it.' Deuteronomy 1:17
256 Negative Not to be moved in trying a case, by the poverty of one of the parties On the other hand, don't favor a person's lawsuit simply because he is poor.

" 'Do not be unjust in judging show neither partiality to the poor nor deference to the mighty, but with justice judge your neighbor.

Exodus 23:3; Leviticus 19:15
257 Negative Not to pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans "You are not to deprive the foreigner or the orphan of the justice which is his due, and you are not to take a widow's clothing as collateral for a loan. Deuteronomy 24:17
258 Negative Not to pervert the judgment of a sinner (a person poor in fulfillment of commandments) "Do not deny anyone justice in his lawsuit simply because he is poor. Exodus 23:6
259 Negative Not to render a decision on one's personal opinion, but only on the evidence of two witnesses, who saw what actually occurred Keep away from fraud, and do not cause the death of the innocent and righteous; for I will not justify the wicked. Exodus 23:7
260 Negative Not to execute one guilty of a capital offense, before he has stood his trial These cities are to be a refuge for you from the dead person's next-of-kin, who might otherwise avenge his kinsman's death by slaying the killer prior to his standing trial before the community. Numbers 35:12
261 Positive To accept the rulings of every Supreme Court in Israel In accordance with the Torah they teach you, you are to carry out the judgment they render, not turning aside to the right or the left from the verdict they declare to you. Deuteronomy 17:11
262 Negative Not to rebel against the orders of the Court In accordance with the Torah they teach you, you are to carry out the judgment they render, not turning aside to the right or the left from the verdict they declare to you. Deuteronomy 17:11

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